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Road Tyres: Designed for cycling on smooth surfaces or tarmac, road tyres offer an even tread pattern and a low rolling resistance. These tyres are often very thin and are not designed to provide much suspension. (see A)
Mountain Bike Tyres: Perfect for off-road riding, these tyres are a lot wider and more cushioned than road tyres. Mountain Bike tyres allow the bicycle to adapt to changes in surfaces without altering stability. (see B)
Commuter Tyres: Also referred to as cross tyres, commuter tyres strike a balance between road and mountain bike tyres, and are designed to provide more grip and comfort on the road when changing directions and making constant stops for traffic. (see C)
Step 1: There are two main types of valve on the inner tube of a tyre. The Presta valve (see A) is the thinner of the two and is a small pin valve which is held tight by a nut. The Schrader valve (see B) is fatter but there are no nuts which need to be loosened.
Step 2: Make sure your valve type is compatible with the pump you are using (some pumps can only be used with a certain valve).
Step 3: Firmly press the nozzle's pump down onto the valve and ensure it is sealed correctly. Be careful when applying pressure on a Presta valve as this usually cannot be replaced if it is broken.
Step 4: Pump the tyres to the volume (psi) outlined on the sidewall of the tyre (see C). Road bike tyres are usually 80-130psi and mountain bikes are often 30-50psi.
Step 1: Place the bicycle on its back so the wheels are facing upwards and untighten the nuts using pliers or a socket set. Alternatively, loosen the quick release mechanism/lever (see A) which holds the tyre in place.
Step 2: For the rear wheel, lift the chain clear of the gear cluster. Shift the chain to the smallest gear before loosening the nuts and release the brakes as they will make the wheels harder to remove. Now, take the wheels out of the frame.
Step 3: Deflate the tube by pressing down on the inner part of the valve. Take two tyre levers (see B) and ease one under the wheel rim. Hold the first lever in place by hooking it to a spoke and push the second lever under the tyre rim a few inches away from the first. (see C)
Step 4: Pull the second tyre lever around the wheel like you're opening a can and take the rest of the tyre off. Push the tyre aside, remove the valve stem and pull the tyre tube out. (see D)
Step 1: Attach a mini pump to the valve of the new inner tube and give it just enough air to make it round.
Step 2: Locate the valve stem hole on the wheel and insert the valve. (see A) Tuck the tube under the tyre and work it around the wheel. Push the edges of the tyre back onto the rim of the wheel and ensure the tube isn't pinched anywhere between the tyre and the rim.
Step 3: Once the tyre is inflated, grab the rear wheel and connect the quick release lever with the bottom half of the chain. Lay the chain on top of your smallest cog, gently push the bicycle in place and close the quick release lever and brake.
Step 4: For the front wheel, insert the quick release skewer through the middle of the wheel and attach the spring and the nut. Push the wheel's axel into the front forks on the frame of the bicycle and tighten the nuts on the right hand side until the lever becomes firm enough to close. (see B)
Drop bars: Usually found on road bikes but can also be found on touring and commuting bikes. The handles are curved which many riders find comfortable to use when cycling long distances. Brake levers are attached to the top of the handles for easy access. (see A)
Bullhorns: Designed for speed and agility, the bullhorns can be fully extended to allow body weight to be transferred to the front wheel, which releases weight from the back and allows for an ultra-aerodynamic rider position. (see B)
Moustache Handlebars: Used mainly for long journeys on trekking bikes, the moustache handlebars offer four different hand positions: three allow sitting upright but you can grip the vertical end of the bars if you want to adopt a lower aerodynamic position. (see C)
Straight Handlebars: Probably the most common handlebars, these are perfectly horizontal and are often found on mountain bikes. They provide excellent grip and control and allow the rider to make sharp turns. Not ideal for long rides as they only really allow for one upright position. (see D)
Step 1: Begin by placing the bike's wheels firmly on the ground and unscrew the clamp bolts on the back of the handlebar's stem. (see A)
Step 2: Use an allen key to remove the top cap on top of the stem and gently pull off the stem from the steerer tube. (see B)
Step 3: Lower or raise your bar by adding or removing spacers from the steerer tube. Once complete, slide the stem back on top of the steerer tubes and ensure there is a 3-5 mm gap between the tube and the top of your spacers.
Step 4: Tighten the top-cap bolt until you feel it is firmly in place. Make sure it isn't too tight as your handlebars will have heavy steering. Then align the stem with the front wheel and re-clamp the bolts to reattach the handlebars.
Tip 1: Have your chain serviced every 6 months to ensure there is no wear and tear or cracks in the links.
Tip 2: Always check that pins in the links are secure and not liable to fall out.
Tip 3: Ensure the chain is clean and not clogged up with objects, dirt or debris.
Tip 4: Replace your chain every 1,500 miles to be sure it remains in good condition.
Step 1: Do not remove the chain as this can result in breaking a link (always consult a shop technician if a chain needs to be removed). Using a brush or cloth, clean off all excess dirt and water from your chain, sprocket set, chainring and derailleur pulleys.
Step 2: Do not use a hose to spray the chain with water as this can cause irreparable damage. Instead, wash the chain and aforementioned components with water and neutral soap.
Step 3: Work in a bio-degreaser to the chain and then wipe off. Ensure you don't leave the chain soaked in solvent for a long period of time as this will cause malfunction.
Step 4: Apply an even coat of bicycle chain lubricant and run through every gear combination, ensuring the lubrication is applied throughout the entire system. Wipe down any residual lubricant from the chain as this can often attract dirt. (see A)
Platform Bike Pedals: The most common pedals for amateur cyclists. These provide stability and support when cycling downhill and offer adequate grip and control in slippery situations. These pedals are also the easiest to get off in the event of a crash. (see A)
Clipless Pedals: These pedals allow you to clip in to the cleats offering a direct attachment between shoe and pedal. By attaching a small cleat on the sole of your shoe you can lock into the face of the pedal for added control when cycling over bumps or reaching high speeds. (see B)
Mountain Bike Pedals: Contains cleats with a 2-hole design which allow users to slide the cleat back and forth for more comfort and stability. (see C)
Road Bike Pedals: These clipless pedals have a 3-hole design, which allows the pedals to withhold repetitive force and maintain stability for long periods of cycling. (see A)
Step 1: Ensure that both wheels are placed on the floor to improve your leverage before starting to remove the pedals.
Step 2: To remove the right pedal turn the nut counter-clockwise to undo it using a long handled allen key or wrench. The left pedal is reverse threaded so turn the nut clockwise to undo it. (see A)
Step 3: Using your feet can help you generate extra control and ensure you are facing the right way when loosening the nuts.
Step 1: Ensure the new pedal spindles are greased before installing them. Lightly tighten the pedals by hand first to make sure alignment is correct.
Step 2: When tightening the left pedal, reinsert the allen key and turn counter-clockwise to tighten.
Step 3: When tightening the right pedal, reinsert the allen key and turn clockwise to tighten.
Step 1:If the grooves in the brake pads have disappeared or a gritty scraping sound can be heard when braking, your brake pads will probably need to be replaced. (see A)
Step 2: Loosen the brake pad's retaining nuts on both sides of the wheel and remove the damaged brake pads.(see B)
Step 3:Place new brake pads into the position and tighten the nut using your hands and an allen key. Line the top part of the pad 1mm away from the edge of the wheel's rim and fully tighten.
Step 4: Repeat the process on the other side of the wheel and make sure the pads hit the rim symmetrically and at exactly the same time. (see C)
Step 1: Usually you want two finger lengths between the handlebar and the brake levers when you squeeze. Always tighten your brakes when the brake levers exceed this measurement and are too close to the handlebars.
Step 2: Locate the barrel adjusters at the end of the brake lever and unscrew them until the brakes are harder to squeeze. (see A)
Step 3: If the brakes need to be adjusted further, take an allen key, gently unscrew the brake on the front wheel and pull the brake cable tighter so that the brake pads are closer to the wheel rims. (see B)
Step 4: When you can see the brake pads just about touching the wheel rim, close the brake on the front wheel and tighten the barrel adjuster so that there are two finger lengths between the handlebars and the brake levers.